Áltsè Hooghan – Story of the First Hogan

The First Navajo Hogan Book

A “flip” book in English and Diné Bizaad.

First hogan cover-2

The Story of the First Hogan (Áltsè Hooghan), is a 38 page, bilingual “flip” book with beautiful, full-color illustrations by Charles Yanito. Story is told by Don Mose, Jr. This is a “perfect-bound” book, measuring 8.5 x 11”. The story tells how the animals helped First man and First Woman discover the type of shelter or dwelling that they needed for a home.

The Story of the First Hogan

Readers accompany First Man and First Woman on a journey to discover the ideal type of dwelling for the Navajo People. First Man and First Woman find inspiration and insights as to how to design a home for themselves and future generations, by visiting the homes of their animal neighbors.

The Story of the First Hogan

This paperback book contains 20 pages and is realistically illustrated with original paintings created by Navajo artist, Charles Yanito.

The Story of the First Hogan is a traditional narrative as told by Don Mose, Jr.

38 page, bilingual “flip” book “perfect-bound” measuring 8.5 x 11

Price $10.00

Ordering Information

San Juan School District
Heritage Language Resource Center
28 West 200 North
Phone: 435-678-1230
FAX: 435-678-1283
Store Hours: 9:00 – 4:30
Monday through Thursday
Email: rstoneman@sjsd.org

Online order at this Website: media.sjsd.org

We accept purchase orders, credit cards, and checks.
We bill only for items shipped and actual cost of shipping.
Personal orders ship after payment is received.
Please estimate 10% of purchase total for shipping cost.

Learn More about the Hogan here

Huerfano Mesa – Navajo Sacred Mountain

Huerfano Mesa (Dzil Na’oodilii – Encircling Mountain)

Home of First Man (‘Altsè Hastiin) and First Woman (’Altsè Asdzáá)

Huerfano Mesa -Navajo Sacred Mountain

Huerfano Mountain is a mountain summit in San Juan County in the state of New Mexico (NM). Huerfano Mountain climbs to 7,441 feet (2,268.02 meters) above sea level. Huerfano Mountain is located at latitude – longitude coordinates (also called lat – long coordinates or GPS coordinates) of N 36.425843 and W -107.845061

Dzil Na’oodilii is one of the sacred mountains of the Navajos, and is said to be suspended from the sky with sunbeams.

Dzil Na’oodilii is considered to be the “lungs” of Navajo country.

It is also the home of Yódí’ashkii (Goods of Value Boy), and Yódí’at’ééd (Goods of Value Girl), and one of the homes of ‘Altsé Hastiin (First Man), and ‘Altsé ‘Asdzáá (First Woman).

In the beginning DzilNa’oodilii was decorated with pollen, rugs, hides, cloth, and Male Rain for the coming of a special child (Changing Woman)

The Four Navajo Sacred Mountains

Mount Blanca (Tsisnaasjini’ – Dawn or White Shell Mountain – East
Mount Taylor (Tsoodzil – Blue Bead or Turquoise Mountain) – South
San Francisco Peaks (Doko’oosliid – Abalone Shell Mountain) – West
Mount Hesperus Dibé Nitsaa (Big Mountain Sheep) – Obsidian Mountain – North

Navajo People Website Links:

Navajo Culture – Navajo History – Navajo Art – Navajo Clothing Navajo Pictures – Navajo Rugs – Navajo Language– Navajo Jewelry – Navajo Code Talker – Navajo Pottery – Navajo Legends – Hogan’s – Sand Painting – Navajo Food – Navajo News – Navajo Nation

Navajo creation story – Nihalgai – The Glittering or White World

 The Glittering or White World

The Locust,  was the first to reach the next world. He looked around, and saw that the world was covered with water that  glittered and everything looked white. This is why they call it the Glittering World or White World.
The other beings followed Locust, and everyone came into the White World. The place where they came is called Hajinei. Many people say this place is somewhere in the La Plata Mountains, in Colorado.
Note:(Locust also means grasshopper, cicada)

Navajo Creation Story Painting by Kee Lee

Navajo Creation Story Painting by Kee Lee – Nizhoni Fine Arts Competition – Navajo Nation Fair 2012

Even though they escaped the water in the Third World, the beings were not safe. The water kept rising up after them.

First Man asked the Water Buffalo why she had come and why she had sent the flood. She said nothing. Then the Coyote drew the two babies from his coat and said that it was, perhaps, because of them.

The Turquoise Boy took a basket and filled it with turquoise. On top of the turquoise he placed the blue pollen,  from the blue flowers,and the yellow pollen from the corn; and on top of these he placed the pollen from the water flags,  and again on top of these he placed the crystal, which is river pollen.

This basket he gave to the Coyote who put it between the horns of the Water Buffalo. The Coyote said that with this sacred offering he would give back the male child. He said that the male child would be known as the Black Cloud or Male Rain, and that he would bring the thunder and lightning. The female child he would keep.

She would be known as the Blue, Yellow, and White Clouds or Female Rain. She would be the gentle rain that would moisten the earth and help them to live. So he kept the female child, and he placed the male child on the sacred basket between the horns of the Water Buffalo. And the Water Buffalo disappeared, and the waters with her.

Soon, First Man and First Woman began to make things the way they were supposed to be. The Holy People helped them. Their first job was to rebuild the mountains. They had brought soil from the Yellow World. With this they made mountains in all four directions.

Then, the people made a fire. To start it, they used flint. The flint also was brought from the Yellow World. The fire was started with four kinds of wood: fir, pinyon, spruce and juniper. lt is said that these kinds of wood should be treated with respect, even today. They should not be misused.

The fire made a loud noise. The noise was so loud that some of the beings were afraid. One of them broke a branch from a tree, and stuck the branch in the fire. This made the noise go away. Because of this, a song and a prayer were made for the tree branch. This branch was the first fire poker. To this day, the poker is respected.

When they had fire, the people made a sweatbath. They built a sweathouse. They made songs and prayers for it. First Man was the first to use these things.

1-4a Forth World

Creation Story Poster- Ni’hodilhil First World
Illustrations by Theresa Breznau.
© 2013 Heritage Language Resource Center. All rights reserved
To purchase see bottom of page.

First Man and First Woman wanted a hogan. They wondered where to build it. They looked around, and saw many trails leading to other beings’ homes. But there were no other hogans at Huerfano Mesa. So first Man and First Woman built their home there. Talking God helped to build the first hogan. This was a male hogan. lt was like the forked stick hogan we have today. lt had a doorway facing east. This let in the early morning light. The male hogan was only for ceremonies.

First Man and First Woman still needed a home where they could live. With the help of other beings, they built a female hogan. This hogan was made of mud and logs. lt was shaped like a circle. This was the place where the people lived and worked.

By now First Man and First Woman had become human. They were like us. They lived at Huerfano Mesa. For food, they ate wild plants and animals. The Holy People made a song and prayer to let plants grow. Then the people planted their own food.

After this, there were four seasons. ln the spring, the plants came up from the ground. ln the winter, the plants died and were hidden under the snow. Then in the spring they came up again. The plants grew into crops like corn, beans and squash. But all was not well. There were monsters who hurt people. Horned Monster chased people and killed them with his horns. There was a monster that kicked people off the edge of a cliff. Another monster killed people by staring at them until they were under his spell. Then he ate them.

First Man and First Woman could not stop the monsters. They did not know what to do. Then one day they looked up. They saw a cloud over Gobernador Knob. First Man went to the top to see what the cloud was. ln the cloud was a baby girl.

First Man lifted the baby into his arms. He carried her down to First Woman. The Holy People helped First Man and First Woman raise the baby girl. They named her Changing Woman. ln time, Changing Woman grew to be an adult. She had twin sons. One was named Ghild Born of Water. The other was called Monster Slayer. The twins grew to be tall and strong. One day they went hunting. They looked down, and saw a hole in the ground.

Smoke was coming out of the hole. They looked closer, and heard a voice say, “Come in.” They climbed down into the hole. At the bottom, they found Spider Woman. The Twins always wondered who was their father. They asked Spider Woman about this. “The Sun is your father,” she told them. The Twins decided to meet their father. They left Spider Woman, and went toward the Sun.

It was long, hard trip. Many things tried to keep the boys from their father. Finally, they reached the Sun. They told him about the monsters that were hurting people. The Sun promised to help get rid of the monsters. Before the Twins left, their father gave them weapons and knowledge. “Use these to kill the monsters,” the Sun said.

So the Twins left. Monster Slayer used his new weapons to kill many monsters. His brother helped.

The boys stripped off his helmet and coat-of-mail and put them in his two big baskets, to carry home to their mother. Then the younger brother, Child-of-the-Water, cut off the giant’s scalp, whence his other name, the Cutter. When the twins got back to the Holy Hohrahn, they found their mother making baby-tracks of corn-pollen, as a prayer for the return of her sons. She also had a long piece of turquoise, which she held up to the Sun. When smoke arose from the upper end, it was a sign that the boys were in danger. When drops of blood appeared at the lower end, it was a sign they had killed their enemies.

The next morning the Slayer went out alone and killed the great one-horned monster which had tried to eat him up. The next day he went to Winged Rock, where the harpy which had pursued him dwelt; and so on each day he went out, until the last of the monsters was dead. But when he thought the land was freed of all evil, he spied four ugly strangers. They were Cold and Hunger, Poverty and Death, and straightway he went to destroy them.

Cold was an old woman, freezing and shivering.

‘You may kill me if you wish,’ she said. ‘But if you do, it will always be hot. There will be no snow, and no water in the summer. You will do better to let me live.’

‘You speak wisely, my grandmother,’ he answered; and so we still have the cold.
‘If you kill me,’ said Hunger, ‘the people will all lose their appetites. There will be no more pleasure in feasting and eating.’ So the Slayer let him live.

Poverty was an old man, in filthy garments.

‘Kill me,’ he said, ‘and put me out of my misery. But if you do your old clothes will never wear out, the people will never make new ones. You will all be ragged and dirty, like me.’ So the Slayer spared his life.

Death was old and bent and wrinkled and the Slayer determined to kill her.

‘If you slay me,’ she said, ‘your people will never increase. The worthless old men will not die and give up their places to the young. Let me live and your young men will marry and have children. I am your friend, though you know it not.’

‘I will let you live, my grandmother,’ he said. And so we still have Death.

Ordering Information

San Juan School District

Heritage Language Resource Center

28 West 200 North

Phone: 435-678-1230

FAX: 435-678-1283

Store Hours: 9:00 – 4:30

Monday through Thursday

Email: rstoneman@sjsd.org

Online order at this Website: media.sjsd.org

Click here for New Fall 2013  Catalog

We accept purchase orders, credit cards, and checks.

We bill only for items shipped and actual cost of shipping.

Personal orders ship after payment is received.

Please estimate 10% of purchase total for shipping cost.

 

More of the Navajo creation story:
Navajo creation story – The First World “Nihodilhil” (Black World)

Navajo creation story – Nihodootlizh – Second World (Blue World)

Navajo creation story – Nihaltsoh -The third World (Yellow World)

Navajo creation story – Nihalgai – The Glittering or White World

The Legend of the Navajo Hero Twins – Book

Navajo creation story – the Talking God

Navajo Creation Story – House God

Navajo People Website Links:
Navajo CultureNavajo HistoryNavajo ArtNavajo Clothing Navajo PicturesNavajo RugsNavajo LanguageNavajo JewelryNavajo Code TalkerNavajo PotteryNavajo LegendsHogan’sSand PaintingNavajo Food Navajo NewsNavajo Nation

Navajo creation story – Ni’hodootl’izh – Second World (Blue World)

Because of the strife in the First World, First Man (Atse Hastin), First Woman  (Atse Estsan)  , and the Coyote called First Angry, followed by all the others, climbed up from the World of Darkness and Dampness to the Second or Blue World.

Nihodootlizh – Second World (Blue World)

Creation Story Poster
Illustrations by Theresa Breznau.
© 2013 Heritage Language Resource Center. All rights reserved
To purchase see bottom of page.

In the Blue World
Blue Bird
Blue Hawk
Blue Jay
Insects
Cicada
Crickets

Holy People
Zigzag Lightening
Stright Lighting
Rainbow

Animals
Wolves
Wildcat
Kit Foxes
Mountain Lion

Many beings lived in the Blue World. There was Blue Bird, Blue Hawk, Blue Jay and Blue Heron. Big insects also lived there. Wolves lived in a white house in the east. Wildcats lived in a blue house in the south. Kit foxes lived in a yellow house to the west. Mountain lions lived in a black house in the north.
The powerful swallow people lived there also, and these people made the Second World unpleasant for those who had come from the First World. There was fighting and killing.

The animals of the Blue World were at war with each other. First Man knew this, and he killed some of them. For doing this, First Man received certain songs and prayers. He said the prayers and sang the songs. When he did, the animals came to life again.
Coyote also lived in the Blue World. Coyote traveled all over. He went to all four directions. On his trips, he saw that the beings were not happy. They wanted to leave the Blue World.
When First Man heard this, he tried to help them leave. He smoked some sacred tobacco. He blew the smoke in the four directions. This made the insects feel better, but all the beings still wanted to leave. First Man tried again to help them. He tried many things, but he could not find a way for them to leave.

Finally, First Man found a black stone, called jet. He made a wand with the jet. He made three other wands. One was made of turquoise, One was made of abalone, and one was made of shell. Then First Man carved four footprints on the wands.

The beings climbed on the wands. The wands took them through an opening in the south. Before they left they made an offering. This was their way of thanking the Holy People for helping them leave. Today, people still make offerings like this.

The First Four found an opening in the World of Blue Haze  and they climbed through this and led the people up into the Third or Yellow world.

The First World “Nihodilhil” (Black World)

 Ni’hodootl’izh – Second World (Blue World)

 Nihaltsoh -The third World (Yellow World)

 Nihalgai – The Fourth, Glittering or White World

 


Creation Story Poster Set of Four

4-creation posters

This poster set illustrates and explains the Creation Narrative in simple, design and text.
Each poster depicts the beings and landmarks associated with that World.
Illustrations by Theresa Breznau.
17” x 22” laminated on heavy cardstock.
Sold as a set for $24.00
Also available individually for $6.00 each

To Purchase:
Heritage Language Resource Center
Navajo and Ute Language Resources
28 West 20 North
Blanding, Utah 8451
435 -678 -1230
Website: media.sjsd.org

 

 

Navajo creation story – The First World “Nihodilhil” (Black World)

Navajo origin stories begin with a First World of darkness (Nihodilhil). From this Dark World the Dine began a journey of emergence into the world of the present.

It had four corners, and over these appeared four clouds. These four clouds contained within themselves the elements of the First World. They were in color, black, white, blue, and yellow.

Navajo creation story – The First World “Nihodilhil” (Black World)

Creation Story Poster- Ni’hodilhil First World
Illustrations by Theresa Breznau.
© 2013 Heritage Language Resource Center. All rights reserved
To purchase see bottom of page.

Thing in the Black World
1. Insects – Ch’osh
a. Black Ants – Wo’ia’zhini Dine’è
b. Bee People – Tsi’s’na’ Dine’è
c. Wasp People – Na’azozii Dine’è

1., Divine Spirit
2. First Talking God
3. Second Talking God
4. Coyote
5. Primordial Dawn
6. Primordial Blue Sky
7. Primordial Twilight
8. Primordial Darkness
9. Everlasting life and happiness

The Black Cloud represented the Female Being or Substance. For as a child sleeps when being nursed, so life slept in the darkness of the Female Being. The White Cloud represented the Male Being or Substance. He was the Dawn, the Light Witch Awakens, of the First World.

In the East, at the place where the Black Cloud and the White Cloud met, First Man, was formed ; and with him was formed the white corn, perfect in shape, with kernels covering the whole ear. Dohonotini is the name of this first seed corn,  and it is also the name of the place where the Black Cloud and the White Cloud met.

The First World was small in size, a floating island in mist or water.

On it there grew one tree, a pine tree, which was later brought to the present world for firewood.

Man was not, however, in his present form. The conception was of a male and a female being who were to become man and woman.

The creatures of the First World are thought of as the Mist People they had no definite form, but were to change to men, beasts, birds, and reptiles of this world.

Now on the western side of the First World, in a place that later was to become the Land of Sunset, there appeared the Blue Cloud, and opposite it there appeared the Yellow Cloud. Where they came together First Woman was formed, and with her the yellow corn.

This ear of corn was also perfect. With First Woman there came the white shell and the turquoise and the yucca.
First Man stood on the eastern side of the First World. He represented the Dawn and was the Life Giver. First Woman stood opposite in the West. She represented Darkness and Death.

First Man burned a crystal for a fire. The crystal belonged to the male and was the symbol of the mind and of clear seeing. When First Man burned it, it was the mind’s awakening. First Woman burned her turquoise for a fire. They saw each other’s lights in the distance.

When the Black Cloud and the White Cloud rose higher in the sky First Man set out to find the turquoise light. He went twice without success, and again a third time ; then he broke a forked branch from his tree, and, looking through the fork, he marked the place where the light burned. And the fourth time he walked to it and found smoke coming from a home.

“Here is the home I could not find,” First Man said.

First Woman answered : “Oh, it is you. I saw you walking around and I wondered why you did not come. ” Again the same thing happened when the Blue Cloud and the Yellow Cloud rose higher in the sky. First Woman saw a light and she went out to find it. Three times she was unsuccessful, but the fourth time she saw the smoke and she found the home of First Man.

“I wondered what this thing could be,” she said.

“I saw you walking and I wondered why you did not come to me,” First Man answered.

First Woman saw that First Man had a crystal for a fire, and she saw that it was stronger than her turquoise fire. And as she was thinking, First Man spoke to her. “Why do you not come with your fire and we will live together. ” The woman agreed to this. So instead of the man going to the woman, as is the custom now, the woman went to the man.

About this time there came another person, the Great-Coyote-Who-Was-Formed-in-the-Water, and he was in the form of a male being.

He told the two that he had been hatched from an egg. He knew all that was under the water and all that was in the skies. First Man placed this person ahead of himself in all things.

The three began to plan what was to come to pass; and while they were thus occupied another being came to them. He also had the form of a man, but he wore a hairy coat, lined with white fur, that fell to his knees and was belted in at the waist.

His name was , First Angry or Coyote. He said to the three: “You believe that you were the first persons. You are mistaken. I was living when you were formed. ” Then four beings came together. They were yellow in color and were called the wasp people. They knew the secret of shooting evil and could harm others. They were very powerful.

This made eight people.

Four more beings came. They were small in size and wore red shirts and had little black eyes. They were the or spider ants.

They knew how to sting, and were a great people.

After these came a whole crowd of beings. Dark colored they were, with thick lips and dark, protruding eyes. They were the , the black ants. They also knew the secret of shooting evil and were powerful ; but they killed each other steadily.

By this time there were many people. Then came a multitude of little creatures. They were peaceful and harmless, but the odor from them was unpleasant. They were called the wolazhini nlchu nigi, meaning that which emits an odor.

And after the wasps and the different ant people there came the beetles, dragonflies, bat people, the Spider Man and Woman, and the Salt Man and Woman,  and others that rightfully had no definite form but were among those people who peopled the First  World.

And this world, being small in size, became crowded, and the people quarreled and fought among themselves, and in all ways made living very unhappy.

The First World “Nihodilhil” (Black World)

Nihodootlizh – Second World (Blue World)

 Nihaltsoh -The third World (Yellow World)

 Nihalgai – The Fourth, Glittering or White World

 


Creation Story Poster Set of Four

4-creation posters

This poster set illustrates and explains the Creation Narrative in simple, design and text.
Each poster depicts the beings and landmarks associated with that World.
Illustrations by Theresa Breznau.
17” x 22” laminated on heavy cardstock.
Sold as a set for $24.00
Also available individually for $6.00 each

To Purchase:
Heritage Language Resource Center
Navajo and Ute Language Resources
28 West 20 North
Blanding, Utah 8451
435 -678 -1230
Website: media.sjsd.org

Navajo Creation Story 2 – House God

First Man and First Woman placed two sacred deerskins on the ground as before. On the buckskin a shell of abalone was placed, on the doeskin a bowl made of pearl. The shell contained a piece of clear quartz crystal, and the bowl a moss agate. The objects were dressed respectively in garments of white, blue, yellow, and black wind, and were carried to the end of the land in the east by First Man and First Woman. With their spirit power Astsa• Ha¡sta­n and Astsa• A’stsa¡n sent both the shell and the bowl far out over the ocean, giving life to the crystal and the agate as they did so, directing that the one who would be known as Cha•honaa¡i, the Sun, should journey homeward through the sky by day, shedding light and warmth as he passed; the other, KlÄ•honaái, the Moon, must travel the same course by night. To each were given homes of turquoise in the east and west, and none but the Winds and the gods, HaschaltÄ­ and Haschagan, were to visit them.

Upon their return Astsa• A’stsa¡nn and Astsa• A’stsa¡n were asked if they would leave the sky in so plain a condition, or if they intended to beautify it with jewels. They replied that it was their intention to dot it with many bright stars. All those who had bits of white shell, turquoise, crystal, pearl, or abalone were directed to contribute them for the making of the stars. These were placed upon the two deerskins by First Man and First Woman.

The seven stars of the Great Dipper, Na´hokos Bakaon were the first to be set in the sky. Next, those of Na’hokos Baa¡d, his female complement, were placed in the blue dome. Then followed A’tatso and A’ta’tsaa­, Sa’ntso and Sontsa’a­, and Dalga’hat, the Small Dipper, Sonha’tsÄ­ and Klaka¡i Sta’a­, the Milky Way.

In each instance the arrangement of the stars in the constellation was made when the fragments of precious stones were placed upon the skins, where Ástsĕ Hástĭn and Ástsĕ Ĕstsán imparted glowing light to them and delivered them to the Winds to carry to the sky. Only a small portion of the gems had been thus transformed and sent up, when a fine-looking, well-dressed stranger came up to watch the proceedings. In reply to his question as to what was being done, his attention was directed to the sun, the moon, and the many stars already created, while more were soon to follow. The man was Coyote, son of Darkness. He watched the work for a time, when, seeing his chance, he caught the large deerskin containing the pile of jewel fragments and flung it skyward, blowing into the bits four times ere they could fall, scattering them all over the sky. Thus it is that there are myriads of stars irregular in arrangement and without names. As he strode off Coyote explained curtly that there were already enough sacred things to worship.

Then the Winds were stationed at the horizon to guard the earth, and at the four sacred mountains in the east, south, west, and north, to act as messengers for the Hascha’aa and Hascha’gana Talking Gods and House Gods who had their abodes on them. On the same plane, one behind the other, the Winds were ranged in streaks, White, Blue, Yellow, and Black. Outside of all Coyote placed a streak of Red Wind. This forced itself to the inside many years later and gave rise to disease and premature death, for as the good Winds are life-breathing, so the evil Winds are life-taking. Even now the Red Wind takes the lives of many children every year.

Haschógan - Navajo House God

Haschógan – Navajo House God

Photograph 1904 by E.S. Curtis

Second in general importance only to Haschaalta­ among Navaho deities is the House God, here shown. His position among the gods is quite parallel with that of peace chief among Indians in life. Like the majority of the myth characters he has numerous counterparts in the various world quarters.

The Da’ai†n made their homes near Cha’a­li, close to the place of emergence. It was there that all ceremonies took place. From their homes the people saw a dark Cloud settle and cover the top of Cha’a­li. For four days it kept lowering until the mountain was completely shrouded in dark blue fog. They did not know whether it portended good or evil, but realized that something of moment was at hand. Astsa• Ha¡sta­n ascended the mountain through the fog to learn what it meant, but found nothing unusual. As he turned to descend, a faint, apparently distant cry reached his ears, but he paid no heed. Ere long the same sound came to him again; then a third and a fourth time, whereupon he turned and walked in the direction whence it came. On the eastern slope he found a tiny baby, and wrapping it in rays of sunbeams he carried it home to his wife.

The Cloud that descended was a portion of the sky which had come to meet the Earth; from the union of the two Ya’lkaia’stsa¡n, White-Shell Woman, was born. In twelve days the baby had grown to maturity, subsisting on pollen only.Astsa• Ha¡sta­n and Astsa• Astsa¡n sent messengers to all the Da­ga­n to tell them of the marvel and to summon them to a ceremony which would be held four days later. Word was sent also to the gods on the four sacred mountains.

Ástsa• a’stsa¡n dressed Ya’lkai Astsa¡n in fine garments ornamented with beautiful jewels. At the western side of her hogan she placed a sacred deerskin and laid upon it several wool and cotton blankets, covering the whole with a mountain-lion skin. These were arranged as the seat of honor for White-Shell Woman, for whom was about to be held a ceremony celebrating her maturity.

Navajo creation story – the Talking God

In the world below there was no sun and no moon, and therefore no light, yet vegetation in innumerable forms and the animal people thrived. Among the latter were Gray Wolf people, Mountain Lion,  Badger, Locust,  Pine Squirrel, and  Blue Fox,  Yellow Fox,  Owl,Crow, Buzzard,  four different varieties of the Hawk people, and many others.

Their world was small. At its eastern rim stood a large white mountain, and at the south a blue one. These formed the home of  First Man. A yellow mountain in the west and a black one in the north harbored  First Woman. Near the mountain in the east a large river had its source and flowed toward the south. Along its western bank the people lived in peace and plenty. There was game in abundance, much corn, and many edible fruits and nuts. All were happy. The younger women ground corn while the boys sang songs and played on flutes of the sunflower stalk. The men and the women had each eight chiefs, four living toward each cardinal point; the chiefs of the men lived in the east and south, those of the women in the west and north. The chiefs of the east took precedence over those of the south, as did those of the west over those of the north.

 Navaho Talking God

Navaho Talking God

This, the Talking God, is the chief character in Navaho mythology. In the rites in which personated deities minister to a suffering patient this character invariably leads, carrying a four-piece folding wand, balíl, and uttering a peculiar cry.

As yet there was neither sun nor moon to shed light, only dawn, circling the horizon in the four colors ”white in the east, blue in the south, yellow in the west, and black in the north. Deeming it necessary that they should have light to brighten the world, and warmth for the corn and the grass, on their return to the earth’s center one of the chiefs made a speech advocating the creation of a sun and a moon.

First Man and First Woman placed two sacred deerskin’s on the ground as before. On the buckskin a shell of abalone was placed, on the doeskin a bowl made of pearl. The shell contained a piece of clear quartz crystal, and the bowl a moss agate. The objects were dressed respectively in garments of white, blue, yellow, and black wind, and were carried to the end of the land in the east by First Man and First Woman. With their spirit power and  sent both the shell and the bowl far out over the ocean, giving life to the crystal and the agate as they did so, directing that the one who would be known as  the Sun, should journey homeward through the sky by day, shedding light and warmth as he passed; the other,  the Moon, must travel the same course by night. To each were given homes of turquoise in the east and west, and none but the Winds and the gods, and were to visit them.