The 4 Directions Lesson

Navajo Language Lesson and  Video

Video for Language Lesson 10  Directions
Presenter Clayton Long

Navajo Language Lesson links

Clayton Long – Instructor
Clayton Long YouTube Channel
Navajo Language Lessons Page
Navajo Language Lessons YouTube Channel
Navajo People Language Page
Heritage Language Resource Center
Harold Carey Jr – Computer Teacher


The Navajo Sacred Mountains Poster

Available in three sizes:
23” x 35” – $10.00
18” x 24” – $6.00
11” x 14” – $2.00
Illustrates the Six Scared Mountains,
their characteristics, and contributions in
Navajo culture and history.

Ordering Information

San Juan School District
Heritage Language Resource Center
28 West 200 North
Phone: 435-678-1230
FAX: 435-678-1283
Store Hours: 9:00 – 4:30
Monday through Thursday

Online order at this Website:

Click here for New Fall 2013  Catalog

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We bill only for items shipped and actual cost of shipping.
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Please estimate 10% of purchase total for shipping cost.

The Four Navajo Sacred Mountains

Mount Blanca (Tsisnaasjini’ – Dawn or White Shell Mountain – East
Mount Taylor (Tsoodzil – Blue Bead or Turquoise Mountain) – South
Mount Humphrey (Doko’oosliid – Abalone Shell Mountain) – West
Mount Hesperus Dibé Nitsaa (Big Mountain Sheep) – Obsidian Mountain – North

The Navajo Four Cardinal Directions

East – Ha’a’aah

South – Shádi’ááh

West – E’e’aah

North – Náhookos

1-4a Forth World

East – Ha’a’aah

Dawn, birth, beginning of life, a new beginning of each day.  Goal setting visualizing, conceptualizing, and  developing mental strength capabilities.
Realization,creativity, reasoning, awareness,developing ideas,and forming opinions.
Develop good memory skills and sensitivity. Intellectual development and  becoming innovative.

North – Náhookos

Darkness mysteriousness – aging process spiritual wholeness – confidence – reflection – competency –  evaluation. Questioning. Full implementation in strategic planning, goal setting, implementing, reviewing and revising an evaluation, display mental strength and emotional stability, comfortable living, understanding, lifetime learning and living well. Obtaining a sense of balance with self and surrounding surroundings. Obtaining strong mental stability.

South – Shádi’ááh

Planning identify resources, gather information, analyze-express emotional stability, understanding,  identity capabilities and possibilities.
Becoming creative, understanding, generosity, care through understanding of key. Understand I love, emotional stability. Develop awareness of good health and the importance of eating healthy foods daily exercise. Third, the importance of self-sufficient. Self-support, self-governance. Recognize your role and responsibilities in the clan, and extended family and community

West  E’e’aah

No parental role and responsibilities. No purpose of living no family values and principles, no primary and extended family, clan members-use correct term – the terminology in relationships, no appropriate behaviors and acceptable attitude. Make positive relationships and teasing. No accomplishments and implementation, production, results, construct and revise life goals and objectives, missionary person. Active in family social activities as well as general community concen..

The dawn is assigned to, and indicates, the east, the Skyblue the south, the evening twilight the west, and darkness the north.

Hence, the symbolic color of the east is white, that of the south blue, of the west yellow, of the north dark or black. In consequence sand paintings, for instance, of the sacred mountains are decorated in these colors, Sisnajini (Pelado Peak), white, Tsodzil (Mt. Taylor), blue Dookoslid (San Francisco Mountains), yellow, Debentsa (San Juan Mountains), black.

Sacrificial stones, too, are assigned according to the color of the direction: white shell (yolgai), to the west, cannel coal (bashzhini), to the north, red-white stone (tselchii), to the center.

An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language; 1910, The Franciscan Fathers.
Reichard (1950:187-203)
Navajo Nation Department of Diné Education



Mount Blanca (Sisnaajini) Navajo Sacred Mountain

Mount Blanca (Sisnaajini) – Dawn or White Shell Mountain

Direction: East ( Ha’a’aah)
Color: White (Ligia)
Protector: Bear (Shash)

Mount Blanca (Sisnaajini) - Dawn or White Shell Mountain


Mount Blanca (Sisnaajini) Navajo Sacred Mountain

The mountain is considered to be the eastern boundary of the Dinetah, the traditional Navajo homeland.

When the Holy People had assembled the things with which to dress the East mountain, they traveled by way of a sunbeam and rainbow beam to decorate Sisnaajiní.

The Holy People dressed Sisnaajiní with a perfect white shell for positive thoughts and thinking.

Then the Holy People ran a bolt of lighting through a sacred mountain to fasten the East mountain to our Mother Earth.

These are the Holy People that were told to live in this sacred mountain:
1. Dawn Boy and Girl
2. White Bead Boy and Girl
3. White Corn and Male Rain
4. Rock Crystal Boy and Girl and Birds
5. Spotted White Corn for vegetation symbols
6. White Wind, Spotted Wind gave life to this mountain

As Navajo people, we were given Blanca Peak as a starting point. Blanca Peak was put in the eastern direction because the sun rises from there at the start of each day.

Blanca Peak should be thought of as the ‘north arrow’ on a map, which determines the orientation of a person’s mind and physical presence on earth. The eastern direction is easily determined each morning as it is dawning. The sun then rises.

During this process, you are waking up and thinking what it is that you will be doing for the day.

As you go outside of your Hogan, you’re already facing east toward the Holy People. So, being that Blanca Peak is in the eastern direction, Blanca Peak represents ‘thought’.

Thought comes first in everything that you do. Blanca Peak was carefully formed.

Its spirit is that of the Holy People and its appearance is that of varying plants such as trees and flowers.

In that respect, your first thoughts have those same characters.

The literal translation of Blanca Peak (from Navajo) is Black Belted Mountain. There are many stories in why it is called that.

Each of the sacred mountains is a holy person dressed in various outfits. Blanca Peak has a belt. A layer of trees around it that is caused by the ‘tree line’ forms the belt. Just like any of the sacred mountains, Blanca Peak stands on its feet and extends out its arms.
Navaho Legends -Matthews, Washington,-.
The Dîné: origin myths of the Navaho Indians – O’Bryan, Aileen.
An ethnologic dictionary of the Navaho language – Franciscans, Saint Michaels, Ariz.
Foundation of Navajo Culture, by Wilson Aronilth, Jr.,

The Four Navajo Sacred Mountains

Mount Blanca (Tsisnaasjini’ – Dawn or White Shell Mountain – East
Mount Taylor (Tsoodzil – Blue Bead or Turquoise Mountain) – South
Mount Humphrey (Doko’oosliid – Abalone Shell Mountain) – West
Mount Hesperus Dibé Nitsaa (Big Mountain Sheep) – Obsidian Mountain – North

Other Sacred Mountains

Huerfano Mesa – Navajo Sacred Mountain
Gobernador Knob – Navajo Sacred Mountain

The Navajo Sacred Mountains Poster

The Navajo Sacred Mountains Poster


Navajo People Website Links:
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